Spain is called a State of Autonomies and though there is a Central government based in Madrid, the country is a Federation of 17 Autonomous Communities. Each community has different powers. Some have their own educational and health systems, second official language, such as Basque, and laws.
(Study the map of Spain on page R4 at the back of your textbook.)
Beginning in the northwest and moving to the east, the autonomous regions are:
La Rioja: This community is famous for the production of good quality red wines. The harvesting of wine in La Rioja dates back to the Phoenicians and the Celtiberians, a Celtic speaking people. Many who live in this region speak Basque as well as Castilian.
Navarra: Also referred to as the "Kingdom of Navara", this region also produced good quality wines. The capital is Pomplona, which draws worldwide attention for the San Fermín festival, from July 7 to 14, during which takes place the running of the bulls or "encierro."
Of the eastern coast of Spain is the autonomous community of Islas Baleares, also an archipelago. The four largest islands are Majorca, Minorca, Ibiza, and Formentera. In the 13th century, King James I of Aragon conquered the islands which led to the founding of the Kingdom of Majorca, which in 1344 was incorporated into the Crown of Aragon, and later became part of the newly united Spain in 1492. The Balearic Islands were frequently attacked by Barbary pirates from North Africa.